eCoins are also called electronic-value-tokens (eTokens) or Singletons due to their technical nature of being short certificates: Digitally signed bit-string-objects. They contain inter alia information as their denomination value, serial number, issuer-id, end-of-transferability-date and the end-of-effect-date. The denomination-value follows the Physical Cash system, as the user is already familiar with this arrangement. To prevent anyone from creating fake-eCoins, the eMint digitally signed every eCoin, so that the expenses to forge them equals the cost of breaking that signature. Thus, the eCoin is only valid if it has a corresponding digital public-key signature from the issuing eMint. If the receiving eWallet cannot verify the eCoins sent by his partnering eWallet, they are rejected and deleted; our transfer protocol fCCP fail-stops.